Selected Publications: Utts, J. Journal of Parapsychology, Hansen and J. Use of both sum of ranks and direct hits in free-response psi experiments.
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References Definition Remote Viewing is the term of art for a series of nonlocal consciousness formalized protocols in which an individual is asked to provide detailed information about a person, place, object, or event, which information they should not be able to know by reason of their being shielded from it by time, space or both.
Emergence of Remote Viewing The protocols for remote viewing began to emerge in the late s contemporaneously with a related set of protocols known as Ganzfield, a kind of first cousin to remote viewing. To properly understand the historical context, the two vectors of research should be seen as a collective expression: they arose from the same impulse, and by sharing their results the two research communities often helped one another. Both approaches were designed to eliminate a problem that had arisen with the protocols used by JB Rhine and his contemporaries beginning in the s, principally tasks that involved mechanistic number guessing, dice calling, and Zener card naming.
Remote viewing did not sacrifice methodological rigor — quite the opposite. Far from opposing randomization and blindness, the new generation of researchers enthusiastically embraced these controls, and added an evolving sophistication of statistical analysis for a notable increase in methodological rigor. The principal researchers at SRI were Harold Puthoff and Russell Targ; Edwin May joined them a few years later and would go on to be the director of the lab after their departure.
Charles Tart and James Spottiswoode at various times would also collaborate. At Mobius the principal researchers were Stephan Schwartz and Randall De Mattei, with James Spottiswoode collaborating, and with specialist teams from many disciplines uniquely assembled for each of the applied remote viewing projects.
All three labs pursued several lines of research in addition to remote viewing. Mobius looked at personality issues, therapeutic intention, creativity, and cross-cultural nonlocal consciousness states. What Is a Remote Viewing Session? A remote viewing session is basically two people making an agreement, an intention contract, to have a very focused conversation for a specific purpose, one person asking questions and another responding to them.
It is a very natural experience and there is an intimacy to it. And with the new protocols, and the altered psychodynamic, the Decline Effect disappeared. It is a location somewhere on planet Earth.
Can you please describe it for me in as much detail as you can? I have no idea what the target is, nor has anyone else.
It will be randomly selected by a computer at pm tomorrow. At the time the session data was gathered, there was no target selected, and no one could know what it would be. A third person would go to the randomly selected locale. Could you please describe for me the circumstances and conditions of name. Research had shown that analytical concepts like numbers were much harder for viewers to get accurately, compared with sense impressions such as shapes, colors and sounds.
But suppose you wanted to send a message that had number or letters through remote viewing? Or, as a second usage, to assign an object or place an associated meaning to determine the outcome of some event? In an experiment conducted by Mobius and assisted by SR, outbound locations associated with codes were described. The second use of this protocol was to pick the winner of a horse race.
Different locations were assigned by Mobius to the different horses running in a particular race, at a particular track. The viewers were told that at a certain time the next day they would be taken to a location and were asked to describe where that would be. Unbeknownst to the viewer the horse race, run after the session data had been collected and judged, would determine the location to which they would be taken.
The PEAR group took another tack, and reduced target images to a series of descriptors: indoors, outdoors; is a recurring pattern present? The viewer provided information about the descriptors, which could then be computer matched with the randomly selected target. It soon became clear, as with the SRI and Mobius work, that no matter how the target was encrypted, reduced to descriptors, or associated with a meaning, whether an outbound person was used or not, viewer performance was essentially the same.
Over the years this descriptor approach would morph into five variants. Using these five analytical methods trials were carried out. They were grouped by experimental criteria. Overall the results, although they differed somewhat across the trials, were all highly significant, whatever the method used. The analysis of the now trials yielded this: Twenty-four such recipes have been employed, with queries posed in binary, ternary, quaternary, and ten-level distributive formats.
Thus treated, the database yields a composite z-score against chance of 5. The group further concluded: Numerous subsidiary analyses agree that these overall results are not significantly affected by any of the secondary protocol parameters tested, or by variations in descriptor effectiveness, possible participant response biases, target distance from the percipient, or time interval between perception effort and agent target visitation.
Mobius Mobius began from a different perspective. PEAR and SRI had started with the idea that the nonlocal awareness used in successful remote viewing studies must first be proven to exist.
Schwartz had begun experimenting in what he called Distant Viewing in , and by the time Mobius was founded in he felt that the reality of nonlocal consciousness was a settled issue. He began with a more anthropological focus centered on how the process of accessing nonlocal consciousness worked, and whether anything useful could be accomplished through accessing it. Thus many of its studies were accompanied by psychological profile instruments, two in particular involving an international study and profile instrument published in both the American and Japanese editions of the popular science magazine, OMNI as well as The LA Weekly.
These are: intention, numinosity, entropy. But the session data revealed a third, unanticipated outcome, what came to be called Displacement. This is where a viewer provides an accurate description of one of the targets in a target set that collectively comprise the potential futures, but not the one actualized by being selected.
It became clear that the information gathering process could be strongly modulated by culture and personal attitudes. An Electromagnetic Phenomenon? Leonid Vasiliev Russian physiologist and psychologist Leonid Leonidovich Vasiliev was the first person to seriously ask the question, is nonlocal perception an electromagnetic phenomenon?
He would ask participants to focus on a target individual and to stimulate them in some way. He found that it worked. By changing the shielding he finally concluded that if nonlocal perception were electromagnetic it could only be Extreme Low Frequency ELF Hrtz because he had eliminated everything else.
The only way to test that, to shield from ELF, was to submerge the participant in the sea at a depth ELF could not penetrate, and then see if they could still successfully complete an experiment requiring nonlocal perception. But that required a submarine, and Vasiliev, despite all his efforts, could not make that happen. The ELF hypothesis seemed all the more plausible because research in the early s had demonstrated that human subjects showed measurable physiological responses to ELF exposure 8 even when shielded by earthen bunkers.
Over many years Michael Persinger, a cognitive neuroscientist and professor at Laurentian University in Ontario, Canada, had produced more than peer-reviewed papers looking at how electromagnetic fields affected individuals.
He first turned his attention to nonlocal consciousness in , when he proposed that telepathy and clairvoyance could be explained by electromagnetic waves in the extreme low frequency ELF range.
In their Project Sanguine they explored the ELF seawater relationship with meticulous care, and discovered that the bit rate of transmission using ELF was restricted to just a few numbers, since frequency also dictates the amount of information that can be transmitted.
Thanks to Project Sanguine, Schwartz had the piece of the puzzle that Vasiliev lacked, and could see even before doing the experiment that the amount of data routinely provided in a remote viewing session far exceeded the transmission bit rate of ELF.
A single letter, given an alphabet of 26 symbols, requires 4. So a five letter word needs around 24 bits. Actually, somewhat less will do, since all letters do not have an equal probability of occurrence.
In contrast, it has been calculated that a single visual observation requires about bits of data, and a simple geometric form about 60 bits. But doing the actual experiment was still important. Project Deep Quest In , through the auspices of the Institute for Marine and Coastal Studies of the University of Southern California, and the generosity of its directors Don Walsh and Don Keach, retired naval officers and internationally recognized for their deep ocean engineering expertise, Schwartz got the use of a research submersible, Taurus, and created Project Deep Quest.
This had three parts: ascertain whether the ELF hypothesis was viable use the ARV protocol to see if a reliable communications channel could be established see if by using remote viewing, a previously unknown wreck on or under the seafloor could be located, described in detail, and its history reconstructed Because Taurus had a 1,foot depth limit, the ELF portion of the experiment could not be definitive; to get sufficient shielding for that would require a submersible with at least a 6,foot depth limit.
However, by placing the submarine at depth, which highly attenuated the signal, and further reducing the bit rate, along with the viewer being at over miles distance from the outbound target, a functionally definitive experiment could be carried out.
The Deep Quest fieldwork with Taurus was carried out over three days in June It showed that ELF was a highly improbable explanation for nonlocal perception; also that ARV could be used to send a message and, equally important, that the associational technique worked.
And finally, by means of remote viewing, a previously unknown shipwreck off Santa Catalina island, an area previously surveyed by a variety of electronic technologies, was located and accurately reconstructed in detail and dated.
The evidence to back that statement comes in two parts, protocols in which a statistical outcome is the measure, and application protocols where probability statistics are only one aspect of assessment. Typically, in an archaeological project, the latter would include concept-by-concept analyses of such things as location, surface geography, subsurface or marine descriptive concepts, as well as detailed descriptions of conditions and objects found at the located site.
But let us begin just with the statistics, because a unique body of longitudinal research exists. Jessica Utts and Ray Hyman A nationally known mathematician and statistician Jessica Utts, chairman and professor of statistics at University of California, Irvine, became interested in remote viewing and examined the SRI database, not once but several times across experiments covering almost two decades.
In her first analysis she examined forced choice protocols with free response, summarizing as follows: In an analysis was made of all of the experiments conducted at SRI from until that time May et al, The analysis was based on all experiments conducted during that era, consisting of over 26, individual trials.
Of those, almost 20, were of the forced choice type and just over a thousand were laboratory remote viewings. There were a total of subjects in all experiments. The statistical results were so overwhelming that results that extreme or more so would occur only about once in every such instances if chance alone is the explanation i. Obviously some explanation other than chance must be found. Psychic functioning may not be the only possibility, especially since some of the earlier work contained methodological problems.
However, the fact that the same level of functioning continued to hold in the later experiments, which did not contain those flaws, lends support to the idea that the methodological problems cannot account for the results. In fact, there was a talented group of subjects labeled G1 in that report for whom the effects were stronger than for the group at large. According to Dr. May, the majority of experiments with that group were conducted later in the program, when the methodology had been substantially improved.
In addition to the statistical results, a number of other questions and patterns were examined. A summary of the results revealed the following: 1. There was a group of six selected individuals whose performance far exceeded that of unselected subjects. The fact that these same selected individuals consistently performed better than others under a variety of protocols provides a type of replicability that helps substantiate the validity of the results.
If methodological problems were responsible for the results, they should not have affected this group differently from others.
Mass-screening efforts found that about one percent of those who volunteered to be tested were consistently successful at remote viewing. This indicates that remote viewing is an ability that differs across individuals, much like athletic ability or musical talent. Results of mass screenings were not included in the formal analysis because the conditions were not well-controlled, but the subsequent data from subjects found during mass-screening were included.
Neither practice nor a variety of training techniques consistently worked to improve remote viewing ability. It appears that it is easier to find than to train good remote viewers. It is not clear whether or not feedback showing the subject the right answer is necessary, but it does appear to provide a psychological boost that may increase performance.
Distance between the target and the subject does not seem to impact the quality of the remote viewing.
Home Page for Professor Jessica Utts
In , Utts contributed a positive commentary to a report on the Star Gate remote viewing program. She has since continued to support parapsychology through interviews, journal articles and invited appointments at psi research institutes, and has helped develop statistics learning materials. The SRI research encompassed 26, trials of which 20, were forced-choice, and 1, laboratory remote viewing trials conducted between and The early SRI experiments suffered from some methodological weaknesses. However, the same level of psi performance was evidenced in better controlled later studies.
References Definition Remote Viewing is the term of art for a series of nonlocal consciousness formalized protocols in which an individual is asked to provide detailed information about a person, place, object, or event, which information they should not be able to know by reason of their being shielded from it by time, space or both. Emergence of Remote Viewing The protocols for remote viewing began to emerge in the late s contemporaneously with a related set of protocols known as Ganzfield, a kind of first cousin to remote viewing. To properly understand the historical context, the two vectors of research should be seen as a collective expression: they arose from the same impulse, and by sharing their results the two research communities often helped one another. Both approaches were designed to eliminate a problem that had arisen with the protocols used by JB Rhine and his contemporaries beginning in the s, principally tasks that involved mechanistic number guessing, dice calling, and Zener card naming. Remote viewing did not sacrifice methodological rigor — quite the opposite. Far from opposing randomization and blindness, the new generation of researchers enthusiastically embraced these controls, and added an evolving sophistication of statistical analysis for a notable increase in methodological rigor. The principal researchers at SRI were Harold Puthoff and Russell Targ; Edwin May joined them a few years later and would go on to be the director of the lab after their departure.