Biography  [ edit ] The son of Polish immigrants, Henri Adamczewski was born in a coal-mining area of the North of France where he stayed until the age of It was to this multilingual environment Polish, Picard, French, Russian, German, Ukrainian and Italian that he owed his passion for languages. In , in the midst of war, he had to leave school to learn a trade. He worked as a commis chef and an apprentice baker but continued attending evening classes.
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Biography  [ edit ] The son of Polish immigrants, Henri Adamczewski was born in a coal-mining area of the North of France where he stayed until the age of It was to this multilingual environment Polish, Picard, French, Russian, German, Ukrainian and Italian that he owed his passion for languages. In , in the midst of war, he had to leave school to learn a trade. He worked as a commis chef and an apprentice baker but continued attending evening classes. In , he went back to school and obtained his baccalaureate in A lover of languages, he learned Latin and discovered Indo-European, which was a complete revelation to him.
As a deferred conscript, he was assigned to the naval academy in Brest, Brittany, as Cadet Assistant Teacher of English, before returning to Boulogne-sur-Mer in There he created and ran a language laboratory, which gave him the opportunity to imagine a new pedagogical approach. He was elected President of the regional branch of the APLV Association des Professeurs de Langues Vivantes in Lille and organized conferences on language learning and applied linguistics.
Driven by the enthusiasm met by his theory, he wrote and defended his Ph. The enthusiasm generated in this way attracted post-graduates from all over the world, and Ph.
In , he was appointed Director of the English Institute of Sorbonne Nouvelle University and placed linguistics at the center of the education of the future English teachers. For four years, he developed and made his theory known to specialists in linguistics but also to the general public. In addition to revolutionizing the conception and the discourse of French grammar, Henri Adamczewski proposed an introduction to other languages, highlighting their common points.
Already ill but impelled by the fervor of his readers and the devotion of his students, he continued to write. Once retired and appointed Professor Emeritus, he continued to supervise his Ph. An untiring linguist and polyglot, he started learning Swahili and Turkish.
Les Clefs pour Babel, which was released in , gave him the opportunity to go back on his theory and tell his progress as a teacher and as a linguist. He died on December 25, Today, his theory is supported and enriched by some of his students who have become University Lecturers or Professors in France and abroad.
It still intellectually influences the teachers of English, in French secondary and grammar schools, who attended Sorbonne Nouvelle University.
Utterances contain grammatical items, which both theories posit are markers of linguistic operations forming a deep grammar level. What makes the Metaoperational Theory original is that the research work done within that framework has uncovered a systematic organization apparently common to all languages. These traces are markers of mental operations whose main object is not to enable the speaker to refer to the world, but to indicate how the utterance was built up e.
Such linguistic operations form a finite class, and are apparently common to all languages. An utterance is therefore the product of a number of operations performed by the speaker, i. Put slightly differently, grammatical markers are key items making it possible to encode and to decode the underlying linguistic operations. Yet, the surface order in which the constituents of the utterance appear does not necessarily correspond to the order in which the mental operations underlying utterance construction were performed by the speaker.
Further, the surface order of the constituents varies from language to language while linguistic operations, as has been said before, are supposed to form a stable class common to all languages.
DO therefore relates to one of the most fundamental linguistic operations, i. Although itself stable, this core meaning can embrace different interpretations of the marker in context, and sometimes widely varying or even contradictory ones. The core meaning of a marker can therefore be determined only through careful analysis and comparison of all the different uses of the marker in context. The Metaoperational Theory is thus a theoretical framework within which questions as the following may find an answer: What makes it possible for the English modal auxiliary SHOULD to express distinct notions like advice a , fear b , doubt c , etc.?
The core meaning is not couched in semantic terms but in metalinguistic ones, i. Finally, given that core meanings are metalinguistic descriptions of the operations encoded by markers, and also that linguistic operations form a finite class apparently found cross-linguistically, a core-meaning approach should make it easier to learn other languages: the more languages you learn, the more familiar you get with the set of operations, and the simpler the process of language-learning should become.
This single principle underlies the two-phase theory, which is the main constituent of the Metaoperational Theory. The construction process of an utterance, or of any constituent part of an utterance, can go through two phases; Phase 1 is described as the phase of open paradigmatic choice, and Phase 2 as that of closed paradigmatic choice.
This principle accounts for the apparent diversity of grammatical microsystems throughout languages, and therefore can be grasped through any binary opposition such as Fr. Such an NP will serve for instance to inform the addressee of what a particular box is intended for for pills and not cachous or tobacco or Therefore, at the moment of utterance, quantification cf.
In these conditions, the box can actually contain nothing but pills. We were just talking about Professor X, and here he comes. The principle of cyclicity[ edit ] Henri Adamczewski has always rejected the theory according to which children acquire their native language thanks to an unconscious process based on repetition and imitation. He has also consistently opposed the theory of Universal Grammar UG put forward by Noam Chomsky; according to that theory, UG is an innate property of the mind, therefore inherited by all children, and in that perspective grammar is an organ that grows in the mind.
Adamczewski claims that the utterances produced by the people around a child in the family circle, etc. In a metaoperational theoretic approach, children first have to get at one of the keys of the double keyboard, i.
Once they have that key, they progressively gain access to the whole grammatical system of their language, because it is based on a single organizing binary principle cf. A contrastive approach to the investigation of language and languages[ edit ] At a time when multilingualism is promoted among adults and children, contrastivity, which is one of the major components of the Metaoperational Theory, is an approach making it easier for learners to understand and appropriate the grammatical system of other languages.
On a more theoretical level, among other things, a contrastive approach to the investigation of languages enables linguists to evaluate the validity of their theoretical concepts and analyses.
These operations are marked by grammatical items specific to each individual language, and naturally variation from language to language in the way a particular operation is marked can be quite impressive.
TO and Germ. ZU; Fr. DE and It. DI etc. Synchronic contrastive study, whether of different languages or of one language e. An utterer-centered approach[ edit ] In the conception of how language works promoted by the Metaoperational Theory, the speaker — sometimes also referred to as the utterer — is the most important factor in the construction process of an utterance.
A metaoperational-theoretic approach places focus on speaker strategy. This feature is shared with the other utterer-centered theories, but distinguishes it from the traditional prescriptive approach to grammar, which tends to oversimplify some questions while ignoring others and whose objectives are not of a scientific nature. A teacher who adopts a metaoperational perspective will not teach what should be said in such and such a situation , but will explain the different strategies, based on distinct linguistic operations, open to the speaker in such and such a situation.
The learner will not learn what should be said but what can be said, what the consequences of the different options are on the making of meaning, and that approach is meant to be quite reassuring. Adamczewski, H. New Insights in Applied Linguistics. Caroline grammairienne en herbe ou comment les enfants inventent leur langue maternelle. Dunn, D. Clefs pour Babel ou la Passion des langues. The secret architecture of English grammar.
Daikree The core meaning of hwnri marker can therefore be determined only through careful analysis and comparison of all the different uses of the marker in context. YouTube Videos [show more]. DO therefore relates to one of the most fundamental linguistic operations, i. Only 4 left in stock — order soon. Help us improve our Author Pages by updating your bibliography and submitting a new or current image and biography. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN.
Henri Adamczewski Explained