The aim of the encyclical was to aid and advance the restoration of Christian philosophy , which he felt had fallen into danger and disrepute by adhering to modern trends in secular philosophy , by urging a return to the scholastic thinkers of the Middle Ages , most especially the Angelic Doctor St. Thomas Aquinas , and the related philosophical system of Thomism. The vigorous reintroduction of St. Thomas into the Catholic philosophical teaching was perceived by many as a bold and unprecedented step by the new pope. Indeed, since the French Revolution , most pontiffs had preferred to condemn the errors in contemporary philosophy, not to recommend explicitly a return to the old.

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Underlying this were decades-long disagreements over hegemony of the Atlantic. While Castile had some success in land battles, Portugal had the advantage at sea. The agreement incorporated terms of a agreement regarding restitution of places, release of prisoners, and demolition of fortresses. It provided that the children would live at Mouros, a town near the border between both kingdoms, under the supervision of Dona Beatrice, until they were old enough to wed.

The treaty also states that the parties took a solemn oath to abide by its terms, and pledged not to subsequently seek or avail themselves of a dispensation from the oath from the Pope or his representative. On May 4, , King Afonso V of Portugal granted his son, Infante Joao the trade and fisheries of Guinea, and prohibited anyone from going there without a license from the prince.

His main objective was to find a sea route to the East. Pope Eugene made him a cardinal in after successful trips to Italy and Germany, and when Eugene died the next year Parentucelli was elected in his place.

It ended with the defeat of Granada and its annexation by Castile, ending all Islamic rule on the Iberian peninsula. His sobriquet refers to his conquests in Northern Africa. The Kingdom of Portugal in the 15th century was the first European power to begin building a colonial empire.

The Portuguese Renaissance was a period of exploration during which Portuguese sailors discovered several Atlantic archipelagos like the Azores, Madeira, and Cape Verde, explored and colonized the African coast, discovered an eastern route to India that rounded the Cape of Good Hope, discovered Brazil, explored the Indian Ocean and established trading routes throughout most of southern Asia, and sent the first direct European maritime trade and diplomatic missions to Ming China and to Japan.

John II, called the Perfect Prince, was King of Portugal from until his death in , and also for a brief time in It put an end to the War of the Castilian Succession, which ended with a victory of the Catholic Monarchs on land and a Portuguese victory on the sea. They married on October 19, , in the city of Valladolid; Isabella was eighteen years old and Ferdinand a year younger. It is generally accepted by most scholars that the unification of Spain can essentially be traced back to the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella.

Some newer historical opinions propose that under their rule, what later became Spain was still a union of two crowns rather than a unitary state, as to a large degree Castile and Aragon remained separate kingdoms, with most of their own separate institutions, for decades to come. The court of Ferdinand and Isabella was constantly on the move, in order to bolster local support for the crown from local feudal lords.

Afonso, Prince of Portugal was the heir apparent to the throne of Portugal. He was born in Lisbon, Portugal, and died in a horse-riding accident on the banks of the river Tagus. Inter caetera was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on the fourth of May , which granted to the Catholic Majesties of Ferdinand and Isabella all lands to the "west and south" of a pole-to-pole line leagues west and south of any of the islands of the Azores or the Cape Verde islands.

It authorized Afonso V of Portugal to conquer Saracens and pagans and consign them to "perpetual servitude". The concept of the consignment of exclusive spheres of influence to certain nation states was extended to the Americas in by Pope Alexander VI with Inter caetera.

His marriage in to Isabella, the future queen of Castile, was the marital and political "cornerstone in the foundation of the Spanish monarchy. In , he became King of Navarre by conquest. Isabella I reigned as Queen of Castile from until her death. After a struggle to claim her right to the throne, she reorganized the governmental system, brought the crime rate to the lowest it had been in years, and unburdened the kingdom of the enormous debt her brother had left behind. Her reforms and those she made with her husband had an influence that extended well beyond the borders of their united kingdoms.

Dudum siquidem is a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on 26 September , one of the Bulls of Donation addressed to the Catholic Monarchs Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon which supplemented the bull Inter caetera and purported to grant to them "all islands and mainlands whatsoever, found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered, that are or may be or may seem to be in the route of navigation or travel towards the west or south, whether they be in western parts, or in the regions of the south and east and of India".


Aeterni regis






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